International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, pp. 618-638
doi: 10.1107/97809553602060000604

Chapter 7.1. Detectors for X-rays

Contents

  • 7.1. Detectors for X-rays  (pp. 618-638) | html | pdf | chapter contents |
    • 7.1.1. Photographic film  (p. 618) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.1.1. Visual estimation  (p. 618) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.1.2. Densitometry  (p. 618) | html | pdf |
    • 7.1.2. Geiger counters  (pp. 618-619) | html | pdf |
    • 7.1.3. Proportional counters  (p. 619) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.3.1. The detector system  (p. 619) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.3.2. Proportional counters  (p. 619) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.3.3. Position-sensitive detectors  (p. 619) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.3.4. Resolution, discrimination, efficiency  (p. 619) | html | pdf |
    • 7.1.4. Scintillation and solid-state detectors  (pp. 619-622) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.4.1. Scintillation counters  (pp. 619-620) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.4.2. Solid-state detectors  (p. 620) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.4.3. Energy resolution and pulse-amplitude discrimination  (pp. 620-621) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.4.4. Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity  (pp. 621-622) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.4.5. Escape peaks  (p. 622) | html | pdf |
    • 7.1.5. Energy-dispersive detectors  (pp. 622-623) | html | pdf |
    • 7.1.6. Position-sensitive detectors  (pp. 623-633) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.6.1. Choice of detector  (pp. 623-626) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.1. Detection efficiency  (p. 624) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.2. Linearity of response  (pp. 624-625) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.3. Dynamic range  (p. 625) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.4. Spatial resolution  (p. 625) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.5. Uniformity of response  (p. 625) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.6. Spatial distortion  (p. 625) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.7. Energy discrimination  (pp. 625-626) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.8. Suitability for dynamic measurements  (p. 626) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.9. Stability  (p. 626) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.1.10. Size and weight  (p. 626) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.6.2. Gas-filled counters  (pp. 626-629) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.2.1. Localization of the detected photon  (p. 627) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.2.2. Parallel-plate counters  (pp. 627-628) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.2.3. Current ionization PSD's  (pp. 628-629) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.6.3. Semiconductor detectors  (pp. 629-630) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.3.1. X-ray-sensitive semiconductor PSD's  (pp. 629-630) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.3.2. Light-sensitive semiconductor PSD's  (p. 630) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.3.3. Electron-sensitive PSD's  (p. 630) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.6.4. Devices with an X-ray-sensitive photocathode  (p. 630) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.6.5. Television area detectors with external phosphor  (pp. 630-632) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.5.1. X-ray phosphors  (p. 631) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.5.2. Light coupling  (p. 632) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.5.3. Image intensifiers  (p. 632) | html | pdf |
        • 7.1.6.5.4. TV camera tubes  (p. 632) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.6.6. Some applications  (pp. 632-633) | html | pdf |
    • 7.1.7. X-ray-sensitive TV cameras  (pp. 633-635) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.7.1. Signal-to-noise ratio  (pp. 633-634) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.7.2. Imaging system  (pp. 634-635) | html | pdf |
      • 7.1.7.3. Image processing  (p. 635) | html | pdf |
    • 7.1.8. Storage phosphors  (pp. 635-638) | html | pdf |
    • References | html | pdf |
    • Figures
      • Fig. 7.1.2.1. Detectors used for diffractometry: ( a ) Geiger counter, ( b ) side-window proportional counter, ( c ) end-window scintillation counter  (p. 618) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.4.1. Calculated pulse-amplitude distributions of Cu K α and Mo K α in the form of ( a ) integral curves and ( b ) differential curves  (p. 621) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.5.1. Intrinsic efficiency of semiconductor detectors  (p. 622) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.6.1. Possible combinations of detection processes, localization methods and read-out procedures in PSD's  (p. 624) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.6.2. Absorption of 8 keV and 17 keV photons in argon and xenon as a function of pressure in atm × column length in mm  (p. 625) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.6.3. Spherical drift chamber multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC)  (p. 627) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.6.4. Read-out methods for gas-filled LPSD's  (p. 628) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.6.5. Three-plane MWPC  (p. 629) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.6.6. Integrating LPSD  (p. 629) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.6.7. Fast-scanning television X-ray detector (after Arndt, 1985)  (p. 631) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.7.1. Schematic illustration of an X-ray sensing Saticon camera tube  (p. 633) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.7.2. Square-wave modulation transfer function (MTF) measured for the DIS-type, conventional-type Se–As and PbO camera tubes  (p. 634) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.7.3. Typical example showing dependence of the avalanche amplification on the electric field applied on the amorphous photoconductor (HARP)  (p. 634) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.7.4. Principles of a noise reducer  (p. 635) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.8.1. Mechanism of photo-stimulated luminescence  (p. 636) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.8.2. Measured detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the imaging plate and high-sensitivity X-ray film as a function of the exposure level  (p. 636) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.8.3. Fluctuation noise in the signal as a function of the exposure level  (p. 636) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.8.4. Diagram showing a cascade of stochastic elementary processes during X-ray exposure and image read out of the imaging plate  (p. 637) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.8.5. Dynamic range of the photo-stimulated luminescence of the imaging plate  (p. 637) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.8.6. Dependence of the IP response as a function of the energy of an X-ray photon  (p. 637) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 7.1.8.7. Fading of the IP signals as a function of time with two different X-ray energies (5.9 and 59.5 keV)  (p. 638) | html | pdf |
    • Tables
      • Table 7.1.6.1. The importance of some detector properties for different X-ray patterns  (p. 624) | html | pdf |
      • Table 7.1.6.2. X-ray phosphors (from Arndt, 1982)  (p. 631) | html | pdf |