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Neutron crystallography: methods and information content
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, ch. 19.1, pp. 553-556 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... oxygen and nitrogen - scatter with about the same magnitude as a lead or uranium atom. In addition, neutrons are scattered by ... are essentially point sources, producing diffracted intensity not attenuated by a form-factor fall-off at increasingly higher scattering angles, as ... 80 12.7 Pb 82 9.4 U 92 8.5 There are a few atomic nuclei that induce a phase change of ...

Orientation of water molecules
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.8.1, p. 555 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... molecules 19.1.8.1. Orientation of water molecules In the case of a highly ordered water in a D2O - H2O difference map, the oxygen scattering components will cancel ...
     [more results from section 19.1.8 in volume F]

D2O - H2O solvent difference maps
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.7, p. 555 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... an unbiased method for identifying water molecules and exchangeable hydrogens (Kossiakoff et al., 1992). For several years, the large difference ... protein hydration through the calculation of solvent difference maps (Shpungin & Kossiakoff, 1986; Kossiakoff et al., 1992). In practice, such maps are ...

Refinement
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.6, p. 555 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... Hendrickson, 1982; Wlodawer & Sjolin, 1981) and restrained difference-map refinement (Kossiakoff & Spencer, 1980, 1981). A joint refinement technique in which the neutron and X-ray ... that, because of its negative scattering length, an error in a hydrogen-atom position is minimized by moving the atom ...

Evaluation of correctness
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.5, pp. 554-555 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... quality of the phases derived from the X-ray structure (Kossiakoff, 1983). Several methods have been used. Using the initial ... atoms can further complicate the identification of hydrogen-atom positions (Kossiakoff & Spencer, 1981). Figure 19.1.5.1 | | Difference map of Asn34 in the trypsin structure. (a) In a protein X-ray analysis, the difference in ...

Phasing models and evaluation of correctness
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.4, p. 554 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... much narrower than for the X-ray case. There are a few relatively rare isotopes where a significant anomalous effect exists; however, they are not adequate for ...

Neutron density maps - information content
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.3, pp. 553-554 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... of structural information derived from neutron density maps. Fig. 19.1.3.1(a) shows a well ordered tyrosine ring in the 1.4 structure of the protein crambin (Teeter & Kossiakoff, 1984). It can be seen that the ring ...

Quasi-Laue diffractometry
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.2.1, p. 553 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
Quasi-Laue diffractometry 19.1.2.1. Quasi-Laue diffractometry A significant advance in neutron crystallography has been the development and ... very high background scattering and overlap between the diffraction peaks. A reasonable compromise between maximizing intensity while minimizing the experimental problems is to limit the white radiation component to about a 20% wavelength band by employing Ti-Ni multiple-spacing ...
     [more results from section 19.1.2 in volume F]

Introduction
Kossiakoff, A. A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 19.1.1, p. 553 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000867 ]
... oxygen and nitrogen - scatter with about the same magnitude as a lead or uranium atom. In addition, neutrons are scattered by ... are essentially point sources, producing diffracted intensity not attenuated by a form-factor fall-off at increasingly higher scattering angles, as ... 80 12.7 Pb 82 9.4 U 92 8.5 There are a few atomic nuclei that induce a phase change of ...

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