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Introduction to cryocrystallography
Hope, H. and Parkin, S.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, ch. 10.1, pp. 241-248 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000827 ]
... and, based on systematic studies, also showed that keeping [mu](H+) constant is of great importance. Hui Bon Hoa & Douzou (1973 ... the atmosphere. A solution to this problem was described by Hope (1988), where the solvent is removed while the crystal is ... successful prevention of radiation damage to crystals of ribosome particles (Hope et al., 1989). Radiation damage appears to be ...

Automated robotic crystal handling
Hope, H. and Parkin, S.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 10.1.4.5, p. 247 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000827 ]
Automated robotic crystal handling 10.1.4.5. Automated robotic crystal handling The era of structural genomics has necessitated a move to high throughput at high-intensity synchrotron sources. To meet this goal, a number of robotic crystal-handling devices have been developed. These in turn have had the beneficial effect of increased standardization ...
     [more results from section 10.1.4 in volume F]

Frost prevention
Hope, H. and Parkin, S.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 10.1.3.3, p. 245 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000827 ]
Frost prevention 10.1.3.3. Frost prevention Three areas must be kept frost-free: the crystal, the crystal mount and the delivery end of the transfer tube. The first successful solution to this problem was the dual-stream design of Post et al. (1951). It provides for a cold stream surrounded by ...
     [more results from section 10.1.3 in volume F]

Additional benefits from sub-77K cooling with helium
Hope, H. and Parkin, S.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 10.1.2.5, p. 244 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000827 ]
Additional benefits from sub-77K cooling with helium 10.1.2.5. Additional benefits from sub-77K cooling with helium As is the case with nitrogen cooling, it is unlikely that thermodynamic equilibrium will be reached by cooling to liquid-helium temperatures. The change that will certainly take place on cooling to liquid-helium ...
     [more results from section 10.1.2 in volume F]

Cooling rates
Hope, H. and Parkin, S.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 10.1.1.4, p. 242 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000827 ]
... Microsc. 6, 715-743. Walker, L. J., Moreno, P. O. & Hope, H. (1998). Cryocrystallography: effect of cooling medium on sample cooling ...
     [more results from section 10.1.1 in volume F]

Concluding note
Hope, H. and Parkin, S.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 10.1.5, p. 247 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000827 ]
Concluding note 10.1.5. Concluding note With correctly functioning low-temperature equipment and appropriate techniques, a crystal can be maintained frost-free for the duration of a data-collection run. Formation of frost on the crystal indicates malfunction of the equipment, or operator error. The most likely cause is operator error, but ...

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