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Comparison of X-ray detectors
Gruner, S. M., Eikenberry, E. F. and Tate, M. W.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, ch. 7.1, pp. 177-182 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000820 ]
... measure of the efficiency and noise performance of a detector (Gruner et al., 1978). The DQE is defined aswhere S is the signal, N is the noise, and the subscripts ... signal that spans more than one pixel. For a signal S per pixel which spans M pixels, the integrated signal ...

Applications to macromolecular crystallography
Tate, M. W., Eikenberry, E. F. and Gruner, S. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.2.5, p. 187 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000821 ]
Applications to macromolecular crystallography 7.2.5. Applications to macromolecular crystallography Storage rings. CCD detectors have gained widespread acceptance for macromolecular crystallography at storage-ring sources, in part because of the high-quality data they give, but more for their speed, convenience and efficiency. Accurate data to high resolution are especially important for ...

Detector system integration
Tate, M. W., Eikenberry, E. F. and Gruner, S. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.2.4, pp. 186-187 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000821 ]
... The raw data or corrected images come to the user's workstation where subsequent analysis is performed. This circumvents the problem ... almost always configured as a remote image server; the user's workstation does not even need to be nearby. Clusters of ...

Modular images
Tate, M. W., Eikenberry, E. F. and Gruner, S. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.2.3.6, p. 186 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000821 ]
Modular images 7.2.3.6. Modular images The size of available fibre optics and CCDs and the inefficiencies of image reduction limit the practical imaging area of a single CCD system. Closely stacked fibre-optic taper CCD modules can be used to cover a larger area. Although the image recorded from each module ...
     [more results from section 7.2.3 in volume F]

CCD detector assembly
Tate, M. W., Eikenberry, E. F. and Gruner, S. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.2.2, pp. 183-184 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000821 ]
... tapers (which are more efficient demagnifiers than lenses; see Deckman & Gruner, 1986) to optically reduce a diffraction image excited in a ... ray) and an emission spectrum matched to the typical CCD's spectral sensitivity peak in the red. Although there is a ... n.a. is the numerical aperture of the optical system and M is the linear magnification factor ( corresponds to reduction). ...

Overview
Tate, M. W., Eikenberry, E. F. and Gruner, S. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.2.1, p. 183 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000821 ]
... Tate et al. (1995). References Eikenberry, E. F., Tate, M. W., Belmonte, A. L., Lowrance, J. L., Bilderback, D. & Gruner, S. M. (1991). A direct-coupled detector for synchrotron ...

CCD detectors
Tate, M. W., Eikenberry, E. F. and Gruner, S. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, ch. 7.2, pp. 183-188 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000821 ]
... tapers (which are more efficient demagnifiers than lenses; see Deckman & Gruner, 1986) to optically reduce a diffraction image excited in a ... ray) and an emission spectrum matched to the typical CCD's spectral sensitivity peak in the red. Although there is a ... n.a. is the numerical aperture of the optical system and M is the linear magnification factor ( corresponds to reduction). ...

Future detectors
Gruner, S. M., Eikenberry, E. F. and Tate, M. W.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.1.4, p. 181 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000820 ]
... still being sufficiently affordable to be commercially viable. References Barna, S. L., Shepherd, J. A., Tate, M. W., Wixted, R. L., Eikenberry, E. F. & Gruner, S. M. (1997). Characterization of prototype pixel array ...

Integrating detectors
Gruner, S. M., Eikenberry, E. F. and Tate, M. W.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.1.3.2.2, pp. 180-181 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000820 ]
... stable setup. Storage phosphors are typically read out with 100m square pixels, resulting in pixel images for the common size ... 218. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. Eikenberry, E. F., Tate, M. W., Bilderback, D. H. & Gruner, S. M. (1992). X-ray detectors: comparison of ...
     [more results from section 7.1.3 in volume F]

Evaluating and comparing detectors
Gruner, S. M., Eikenberry, E. F. and Tate, M. W.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 7.1.2, pp. 178-179 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000820 ]
... ray test images of known statistics via equation (7.1.1.1): given M incident X-rays per exposure, the expected incident signal-to ... test image. Repetition of this process for different values of M maps out the DQE curve. Since the DQE is dependent ... Jr (1992). Experience with commercial area detectors: a `buyer's' perspective. J. Appl. Cryst. 25, 146-154. International Tables ...

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