International
Tables for Crystallography Volume B Reciprocal space Edited by U. Shmueli © International Union of Crystallography 2006 
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. B, ch. 1.3, p. 25

Since the publication of Volume II of International Tables, most aspects of the theory, computation and applications of Fourier transforms have undergone considerable development, often to the point of being hardly recognizable.
The mathematical analysis of the Fourier transformation has been extensively reformulated within the framework of distribution theory, following Schwartz's work in the early 1950s.
The computation of Fourier transforms has been revolutionized by the advent of digital computers and of the Cooley–Tukey algorithm, and progress has been made at an everaccelerating pace in the design of new types of algorithms and in optimizing their interplay with machine architecture.
These advances have transformed both theory and practice in several fields which rely heavily on Fourier methods; much of electrical engineering, for instance, has become digital signal processing.
By contrast, crystallography has remained relatively unaffected by these developments. From the conceptual point of view, oldfashioned Fourier series are still adequate for the quantitative description of Xray diffraction, as this rarely entails consideration of molecular transforms between reciprocallattice points. From the practical point of view, threedimensional Fourier transforms have mostly been used as a tool for visualizing electrondensity maps, so that only moderate urgency was given to trying to achieve ultimate efficiency in these relatively infrequent calculations.
Recent advances in phasing and refinement methods, however, have placed renewed emphasis on concepts and techniques long used in digital signal processing, e.g. flexible sampling, Shannon interpolation, linear filtering, and interchange between convolution and multiplication. These methods are iterative in nature, and thus generate a strong incentive to design new crystallographic Fourier transform algorithms making the fullest possible use of all available symmetry to save both storage and computation.
As a result, need has arisen for a modern and coherent account of Fourier transform methods in crystallography which would provide:
The rapid pace of progress in these fields implies that such an account would be struck by quasiimmediate obsolescence if it were written solely for the purpose of compiling a catalogue of results and formulae `customized' for crystallographic use. Instead, the emphasis has been placed on a mode of presentation in which most results and formulae are derived rather than listed. This does entail a substantial mathematical overhead, but has the advantage of preserving in its `native' form the context within which these results are obtained. It is this context, rather than any particular set of results, which constitutes the most fertile source of new ideas and new applications, and as such can have any hope at all of remaining useful in the long run.
These conditions have led to the following choices:
In keeping with this philosophy, the theory is presented first, followed by the crystallographic applications. There are `forward references' from mathematical results to the applications which later invoke them (thus giving `reallife' examples rather than artificial ones), and `backward references' as usual. In this way, the internal logic of the mathematical developments – the surest guide to future innovations – can be preserved, whereas the alternative solution of relegating these to appendices tends on the contrary to obscure that logic by subordinating it to that of the applications.
It is hoped that this attempt at an overall presentation of the main features of Fourier transforms and of their ubiquitous role in crystallography will be found useful by scientists both within and outside the field.