International
Tables for Crystallography Volume B Reciprocal space Edited by U. Shmueli © International Union of Crystallography 2006 
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. B. ch. 2.1, p. 192
Section 2.1.3.2. Symmetry elements not producing systematic absences^{a}School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69 978, Israel, and ^{b}St John's College, Cambridge, England 
Certain symmetry elements not producing absences (mirror planes and rotation axes) cause equivalent atoms to coincide in a plane or a line projection and hence produce a zone or row in reciprocal space for which the average intensity is an integral multiple of the general average (Wilson, 1950); the effects of single such symmetry elements are given in Table 2.1.3.2. There is, however, no obvious mechanism for compensation for this enhancement. When reflections are few this may be an important matter in assigning an approximate absolute scale by comparing observed and calculated intensities. Wilson (1964), Nigam (1972) and Nigam & Wilson (1980), noting that in such cases the finite size of atoms results in forbidden ranges of positional parameters, have shown that there is a diminution of the intensity of layers (rows) in the immediate neighbourhood of the enhanced zones (rows), just sufficient to compensate for the enhancement. In forming general averages, therefore, reflections from enhanced zones or rows should be included at their full intensity, not divided by the multiplier; the matter is discussed in more detail by Wilson (1987 a). It should be noted, however, that organic structures containing molecules related by rotation axes are rare, and such structures related by mirror planes are even rarer (Wilson, 1993).

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