International
Tables for Crystallography Volume B Reciprocal space Edited by U. Shmueli © International Union of Crystallography 2006 
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. B, ch. 3.4, p. 385

The electrostatic energy of an ionic crystal is often represented by taking a pairwise sum between charge sites interacting via Coulomb's law (the sum). The individual terms may be positive or negative, depending on whether the pair of sites have charges of the same or different signs. The Coulombic energy is very longrange, and it is well known that convergence of the Coulombic latticeenergy sum is extremely slow. For simple structure types Madelung constants have been calculated which represent the Coulombic energy in terms of the cubic lattice constant or a nearestneighbour distance. Glasser & Zucker (1980) give tables of Madelung constants and review the subject giving references dating back to 1884. If the ionic crystal structure is not of a simple type usually no Madelung constant will be available and the Coulombic energy must be obtained for the specific crystal structure being considered. In carrying out this calculation, acceleratedconvergence treatment of the Coulombic lattice sum is indispensable to achieve accuracy with a reasonable amount of computational effort. A model of a molecular crystal may include partial net atomic charges or other charge sites such as lonepair electrons. The sum also applies between these site charges.
The dispersion energy of ionic or molecular crystals may be represented by an sum over atomic sites, with possible inclusion of terms for higher accuracy. The dispersionenergy sum has somewhat better convergence properties than the Coulombic sum. Nevertheless, acceleratedconvergence treatment of the dispersion sum is strongly recommended since its use can yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy for a given calculation effort. The repulsion energy between nonbonded atoms in a crystal may be represented by an exponential function of short range, or possibly by an function of short range. The convergence of the repulsion energy is fast and no acceleratedconvergence treatment is normally required.
References
Glasser, M. L. & Zucker, I. J. (1980). Lattice sums. Theor. Chem. Adv. Perspect. 5, 67–139.Google Scholar