Tables for
Volume F
Crystallography of biological macromolecules
Edited by M. G. Rossmann and E. Arnold

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. F. ch. 1.3, p. 20


W. G. J. Hola* and C. L. M. J. Verlindea

aBiomolecular Structure Center, Department of Biological Structure, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7742, USA
Correspondence e-mail:

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Mechanisms of resistance

Overexpress target protein
Mutate target protein
Use other protein with same function
Remove target altogether
Overexpress detoxification enzyme
Mutate detoxification enzyme
Create new detoxification enzyme
Mutate membrane porin protein
Remove or underexpress membrane porin protein
Overexpress efflux pumps
Mutate efflux pumps
Create/steal new efflux pumps
Improve DNA repair
Mutate prodrug conversion enzyme