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Instrumentation for laboratory X-ray scattering techniques
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, ch. 2.1, pp. 26-50 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... s home-laboratory X-ray diffractometers can be used for a wide range of applications, from X-ray scattering from any ... the most direct analytical methods for providing structural information for a material. In particular, X-ray powder diffraction has become one ... from basic research to industrial quality control, has led to a multitude of evolutionary and revolutionary instrument and application developments. ...

Dimensionality
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.7.3.2, p. 49 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... detectors. Electronic binning of the pixels into columns will form a line detector, while binning all pixels together will form a point detector, each associated with improvements of count rates and ... improved count rate and thus dynamic range. Obviously, when turning a line detector by 90, it will function as an ...
     [more results from section 2.1.7 in volume H]

Combi-optics
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.6.3.4, pp. 44-45 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... The steadily growing trend towards multipurpose instrumentation has led to a multitude of X-ray optics combined in single modules to ... and realignment. Such `combi-optics' are usually motorized and allow a fully automatic, software-controlled switch between different beam paths to ... optimize beam conditioning (e.g. high flux versus high resolution). A frequent requirement is the ability to switch between the ...
     [more results from section 2.1.6 in volume H]

Non-coplanar beam-path systems
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.3.2, pp. 35-36 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... systems Non-coplanar (or `in-plane') grazing-incidence diffraction is a technique for investigating the near-surface region of specimens (ten ... plane data collection. Firstly, as is obvious from Fig. 2.1.11 , a dual-goniometer system may be employed. The most sophisticated implementation ... ray bench, allowing sequential coplanar and in-plane measurements. As a further alternative, a single goniometer may be used, with ...
     [more results from section 2.1.5 in volume H]

Range of applications
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.4.3, pp. 31-32 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... s X-ray diffractometers that leads to their usefulness for a wide range of X-ray scattering techniques beyond traditional X ... configured in transmission geometry with the X-rays projected towards a specimen. X-rays that pass through the specimen can be detected to give a two-dimensional representation of the absorption contrast within the ...
     [more results from section 2.1.4 in volume H]

Recent years
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.3.2, p. 28 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... the 1990s, more and more laboratories started to deal with a full range of materials and related applications - from powders through ... quality requirements. The growing need for multipurpose instrumentation led to a new generation of X-ray diffractometers in the late 1990s, from all of the major manufacturers, based on a platform concept covering all relevant beam-path components including ...
     [more results from section 2.1.3 in volume H]

Scope and terminology
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.2, p. 26 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... is defined as elastic, coherent scattering of X-rays from a crystal lattice (in the crystallographic literature, the terms `diffraction', `X ... Bragg diffraction' are frequently used synonymously). In recent texts, a `powder' is frequently defined as a `solid containing small crystallites or particles that will flow ...

Introduction
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.1, p. 26 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... the most direct analytical methods for providing structural information for a material. In particular, X-ray powder diffraction has become one ... from basic research to industrial quality control, has led to a multitude of evolutionary and revolutionary instrument and application developments. In ... manufacturers. Neither technologically obsolete nor niche instrumentation will be discussed. A short description of the history of X-ray instrumentation ...

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