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Thin films and multilayers
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, ch. 5.4, pp. 581-600 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... technological progress (Holy et al., 1999 ; Tolan, 1999 ; Fewster, 2003 ; Birkholz, 2006 ; Guinebretičre, 2007 ; Daillaut & Gibaud, 2009 ; Boscherini et al. ... Lorentz-polarization factor Lp, the structure factor F, the multiplicity m, the texture factor Th etc. as outlined in previous chapters ... wavelengths, corresponding to penetration depths of between 0.1 and 10µm. Since these values are in the range of typical ...

Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS)
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.7, pp. 597-598 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... space extents that are much larger than the probing wavelength (Müller-Buschbaum, 2009 ). For thin films, for instance, the ... K.-W., Shin, T. J., Chung, B., Chang, T. & Ree, M. (2008). Polystyrene-b-polyisoprene thin films with hexagonally perforated ... 41, 281-291.GoogleScholar Jiang, Z., Li, X., Strzalka, J., Sprung, M., Sun, T., Sandy, A. R., Narayanan, S., Lee, D. ...

Reflectivity of multilayers and superlattices
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.6.3, pp. 596-597 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... The product of all of these establishes the transfer matrix M, with the ratio of the M12 and M22 components giving ...
     [more results from section 5.4.6 in volume H]

Stress and strain analysis
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.5, pp. 593-594 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... et al. (1995 ), Hauk (1997 ), Welzel et al. (2005 ) and Birkholz & Genzel (2006 ), and in Chapter 5.2 of this volume. Here ... polycrystalline layers, however, the effects of texture (Genzel, 2001 , 2004 ; Birkholz, Genzel & Jung, 2004 ; Martinschitz et al., 2009 ; Faurie et al. ... et al., 2003 ) and the occurrence of nanometre-sized crystallites (Birkholz, Albers & Jung, 2004 ; Kuru et al., 2008 ), for which ...

Texture gradients
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.4.3, pp. 592-593 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... conditions but of various thicknesses and measuring each sample separately (Birkholz et al., 2000 , 2001 , 2003 ; Fenske et al., 2005 ). ... directly related to the resistivity of the ZnO:Al layers (Birkholz et al., 2003 ). Fig. 5.4.15 shows the resistivity [rho ... thin ZnO:Al films versus reciprocal texture index 1/J (Birkholz et al., 2003 ). Preferred orientation has also been ...
     [more results from section 5.4.4 in volume H]

Use of synchrotron radiation
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3.6, p. 590 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
Use of synchrotron radiation 5.4.3.6. Use of synchrotron radiation The preference for a zero-divergent X-ray beam for grazing-incidence experiments is an important argument for using synchrotron radiation. Another reason, which holds in particular for thin films, where only a small scattering volume is active, is the high photon ...
     [more results from section 5.4.3 in volume H]

Phase inhomogeneities
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.2.4, p. 584 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... coefficient of phase mixtures is the sum over the [mu]m coefficients of all phases weighted by their weight fraction, The ...
     [more results from section 5.4.2 in volume H]

Introduction
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.1, p. 581 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... technological progress (Holy et al., 1999 ; Tolan, 1999 ; Fewster, 2003 ; Birkholz, 2006 ; Guinebretičre, 2007 ; Daillaut & Gibaud, 2009 ; Boscherini et al. ... yield sufficient structural information for thin films and multilayers. References Birkholz, M. (2006). Thin Film Analysis by X-ray Scattering. ...

Conclusions and perspective
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.8, p. 598 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... continue to deliver indispensable contributions during this fascinating journey. References Birkholz, M. (2007). Modelling of diffraction from fibre texture gradients in thin polycrystalline films. J. Appl. Cryst. 40, 735-742.GoogleScholar Birkholz, M., Selle, B., Fenske, F. & Fuhs, W. (2003). ...

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