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Considerations for powder-diffraction experiments
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5, pp. 60-63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... for powder-diffraction experiments Synchrotron radiation allows considerable flexibility for a powder-diffraction experiment, offering choice and optimization of a number of quantities such as the wavelength, with high energy ... an evolving system. In this respect, the open nature of a synchrotron instrument, with space around the sample to position ...
Using the pulse structure
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.7.2, p. 63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... The time for an orbit of an electron circulating in a synchrotron is (circumference/c)s. For a synchrotron such as at the ESRF (with a circumference of 844.4m), this corresponds to 2.82µs (i.e. ...
Using fast detectors
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.7.1, p. 63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
Using fast detectors 2.2.5.7.1. Using fast detectors Scanning a detector through the d-spacing range of interest necessarily takes a few seconds, so is too slow to measure the fastest processes. Thus, for speed, a multichannel detector system is required that acquires the full ...
Time resolution
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.7, p. 63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... for time-resolved studies, following the evolution of samples on a timescale, if appropriate, down to milliseconds, e.g. to investigate the kinetics and the mechanism of a phase transition caused by a change of the temperature, pressure or other external condition, ...
Spatial resolution
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.6, p. 62 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... X-ray beam gives improved spatial resolution, e.g. for studying a small sample contained in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure. A beam with dimensions of a few µm can be ...
Angular resolution
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.5, p. 62 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... 2.2.5.5. Angular resolution The highest angular resolution is obtained from a diffractometer equipped with an analyser crystal such as Si(111 ... determined. For well crystallized high-quality samples, peak FWHMs of a few millidegrees are possible, thus maximizing the resolution of reflections ... exploited for detailed investigation of peak shapes and characterization of a range of properties such as crystallite size, microstrain (Chapter ...
Choice of wavelength
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.4, pp. 61-62 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... The collimation of the beam from the source combined with a perfect crystal monochromator lead automatically to high energy resolution, with a narrow wavelength distribution about a mean value. Consequently there are no issues to contend ...
Beam heating
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.3, p. 61 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
Beam heating 2.2.5.3. Beam heating With a photon intensity of the order 1012photons mm-2s-1 incident on the sample - a possible value for the unfocused beam on a beamline based on an insertion device at a modern ...
Radiation damage
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.2, p. 61 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... incident beam can be so high that radiation damage becomes a real concern, particularly for samples containing organic molecules, such as ... itself by progressive shifts (often anisotropic) in the peak positions, a general reduction in peak intensities and peak broadening as the ... the effects are easily seen and can appear after only a few seconds in the worst cases. In such circumstances ...
Polarization
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.1, pp. 60-61 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... for any polarization correction to the diffracted intensities. However, if a small amount of vertical polarization of the beam does need to be taken into account (possibly up to a few per cent depending on the source), the polarization factor ... incident on the sample that is vertically polarized), 2[theta]a is the Bragg angle of the analyser crystal (if ...
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5, pp. 60-63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... for powder-diffraction experiments Synchrotron radiation allows considerable flexibility for a powder-diffraction experiment, offering choice and optimization of a number of quantities such as the wavelength, with high energy ... an evolving system. In this respect, the open nature of a synchrotron instrument, with space around the sample to position ...
Using the pulse structure
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.7.2, p. 63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... The time for an orbit of an electron circulating in a synchrotron is (circumference/c)s. For a synchrotron such as at the ESRF (with a circumference of 844.4m), this corresponds to 2.82µs (i.e. ...
Using fast detectors
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.7.1, p. 63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
Using fast detectors 2.2.5.7.1. Using fast detectors Scanning a detector through the d-spacing range of interest necessarily takes a few seconds, so is too slow to measure the fastest processes. Thus, for speed, a multichannel detector system is required that acquires the full ...
Time resolution
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.7, p. 63 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... for time-resolved studies, following the evolution of samples on a timescale, if appropriate, down to milliseconds, e.g. to investigate the kinetics and the mechanism of a phase transition caused by a change of the temperature, pressure or other external condition, ...
Spatial resolution
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.6, p. 62 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... X-ray beam gives improved spatial resolution, e.g. for studying a small sample contained in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure. A beam with dimensions of a few µm can be ...
Angular resolution
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.5, p. 62 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... 2.2.5.5. Angular resolution The highest angular resolution is obtained from a diffractometer equipped with an analyser crystal such as Si(111 ... determined. For well crystallized high-quality samples, peak FWHMs of a few millidegrees are possible, thus maximizing the resolution of reflections ... exploited for detailed investigation of peak shapes and characterization of a range of properties such as crystallite size, microstrain (Chapter ...
Choice of wavelength
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.4, pp. 61-62 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... The collimation of the beam from the source combined with a perfect crystal monochromator lead automatically to high energy resolution, with a narrow wavelength distribution about a mean value. Consequently there are no issues to contend ...
Beam heating
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.3, p. 61 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
Beam heating 2.2.5.3. Beam heating With a photon intensity of the order 1012photons mm-2s-1 incident on the sample - a possible value for the unfocused beam on a beamline based on an insertion device at a modern ...
Radiation damage
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.2, p. 61 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... incident beam can be so high that radiation damage becomes a real concern, particularly for samples containing organic molecules, such as ... itself by progressive shifts (often anisotropic) in the peak positions, a general reduction in peak intensities and peak broadening as the ... the effects are easily seen and can appear after only a few seconds in the worst cases. In such circumstances ...
Polarization
International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.2.5.1, pp. 60-61 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000937 ]
... for any polarization correction to the diffracted intensities. However, if a small amount of vertical polarization of the beam does need to be taken into account (possibly up to a few per cent depending on the source), the polarization factor ... incident on the sample that is vertically polarized), 2[theta]a is the Bragg angle of the analyser crystal (if ...
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