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 Results for DC.creator="M." AND DC.creator="Birkholz" in section 5.4.3 of volume H
Use of synchrotron radiation
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3.6, p. 590 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
Use of synchrotron radiation 5.4.3.6. Use of synchrotron radiation The preference for a zero-divergent X-ray beam for grazing-incidence experiments is an important argument for using synchrotron radiation. Another reason, which holds in particular for thin films, where only a small scattering volume is active, is the high photon ...

Total external reflection and critical angle
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3.5, pp. 588-590 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
Total external reflection and critical angle 5.4.3.5. Total external reflection and critical angle The fact that n < 1 holds for X-rays has important consequences for the phenomenon of total reflection. This effect is generally encountered when electromagnetic radiation traverses a phase border. For optical wavelengths, total internal reflection can be ...

Index of refraction for X-rays
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3.4, p. 588 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
Index of refraction for X-rays 5.4.3.4. Index of refraction for X-rays The energies of X-rays h[nu] by far exceed the resonance energies of intra-atomic excitations. Under this assumption, an expression may be derived for the refraction index of X-rays, showing that it deviates only little ...

Grazing-incidence configurations
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3, pp. 584-590 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... of [alpha] = 1.8 for 2[theta] between 22 and 60 (Birkholz, Albers & Jung, 2004 ). Titanium dioxide occurs in a variety ... radiation, where the beam energy or wavelength can be varied. Birkholz proposed varying the information depth by using the strong variations ... the product [mu]t that occur at elemental absorption edges (Birkholz, 2007 ) and this has been applied to the determination ...

Penetration depth and information depth
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3.2, p. 587 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
Penetration depth and information depth 5.4.3.2. Penetration depth and information depth The growth of thin films is often associated with thickness-dependent evolutionary processes. For instance, the grain size may be observed to increase with increasing thickness, or the composition of distinct crystallographic phases may change either continuously or abruptly at ...

Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD)
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3.1, pp. 584-587 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... of [alpha] = 1.8 for 2[theta] between 22 and 60 (Birkholz, Albers & Jung, 2004 ). Titanium dioxide occurs in a variety ... as grazing-incidence asymmetric Bragg diffraction (GIABD) and others. References Birkholz, M., Albers, U. & Jung, T. (2004). Nanocomposite layers of ...

Depth-dependent properties
Birkholz, M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 5.4.3.3, pp. 587-588 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000969 ]
... radiation, where the beam energy or wavelength can be varied. Birkholz proposed varying the information depth by using the strong variations ... the product [mu]t that occur at elemental absorption edges (Birkholz, 2007 ) and this has been applied to the determination of texture gradients (Birkholz et al., 2008 ). In a practical sense, inversion ...

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