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 Results for DC.creator="S." AND DC.creator="A." AND DC.creator="Islam" in section 12.1.3 of volume F
Properties of heavy-atom compounds and their complexes
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3, pp. 318-320 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... heavy-atom reagents may be derived from the functional group(s) of reactive amino-acid side chains, from the buffer and ... influence the formation of such complexes in the environment of a protein crystal. 12.1.3.1. Stability | | Ligands may be classified as either ... components of the reagents may be classified as hard (class A) or soft (class B) in a similar way. Class ...

Solubility of heavy-atom compounds
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3.6, pp. 319-320 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... compounds 12.1.3.6. Solubility of heavy-atom compounds The solubility of a heavy-atom compound will depend upon the precipitant, buffer and ... an aqueous solution of KI. References Lipka, J. J., Lippard, S. J. & Wall, J. S. (1976). Visualisation of polymercurimethane-labelled fd bacteriophage in ...

Effect of precipitants and buffers on heavy-atom binding
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3.5, p. 319 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... binding Components present in the heavy-atom solution can have a profound effect on protein-heavy-atom interactions. The salting in ... of NH3. Pd, Au, Ag and Hg complexes react in a similar way. Decreasing the pH of the solution reduces the ... free ammonia available through protonation (Sigler & Blow, 1965). Such a technique may give rise to other problems (e.g. cracked ...

Effect of pH
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3.4, pp. 318-319 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... within narrow limits, environmental and steric factors give rise to a wide range of values in proteins. Thus, the hydrogen-ion ... compete with heavy-atom ions for the available binding site(s) on the protein. For example, below pH3.5, cations bind less ... ion is formed at pH ~ 8.0. The thiolate ion is a stronger nucleophile than the thioether group of methionine, but ...

Oxidation state of metal ions in protein crystals
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3.3, p. 318 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... of metal ions in protein crystals In the environment of a living cell, the following oxidation states tend to be stable ...

Lability
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3.2, p. 318 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... 12.1.3.2. Lability The rates at which ligands enter and leave a metal complex are important in the formation of heavy-atom ... reaction depend not only upon which ligands are present in a heavy-atom complex but also on the character of the ... substitution vary: Thus, if the reaction between the protein and a palladium or platinum complex is proceeding too fast, a ...

Stability
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3.1, p. 318 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... components of the reagents may be classified as hard (class A) or soft (class B) in a similar way. Class A metals include the alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals, ...

Effect of concentration, time of soak and temperature on heavy-atom binding
Carvin, D., Islam, S. A., Sternberg, M. J. E. and Blundell, T. L.  International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F, Section 12.1.3.7, p. 320 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000837 ]
... Increasing the concentration may give rise to other binding site(s). Usually, the higher the concentration employed, the shorter the ... the crystals can sometimes be avoided by the application of a cross-linking reagent (e.g. glutaraldehyde). The optimal concentration is ... day to one week. Useful derivatives have been prepared with a soak time of an hour to over a year. ...

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