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Isomorphous replacement
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.8, p. 389 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
Isomorphous replacement 4.1.8. Isomorphous replacement Isomorphous replacement is a well established method for the solution of protein crystal structures. In this approach, heavy atoms are introduced into a structure with a consequent effect upon the reflection intensities. There is an assumption that this introduction does not affect the scattering from the ...

Resonant (anomalous) scattering
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.7, pp. 388-389 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
... such experiments to being performed at synchrotron sources. References Burger, K., Cox, D., Papoular, R. & Prandl, W. (1998). The application ...

The Patterson function
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.6, p. 388 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
The Patterson function 4.1.6. The Patterson function The Patterson function, P(u), has one main advantage over conventional direct methods in the context of structure determination: it is calculated using only squared values of the observed structure amplitudes, |Fh|2, as coefficients and thus no phasing is required. Its biggest disadvantage ...

The direct-methods sum function
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.5, p. 388 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
The direct-methods sum function 4.1.5. The direct-methods sum function The direct-methods modulus sum function, S, is an example of a particular implementation of direct methods that is well suited to powder diffraction data (Rius, 1999 ). The value of the function S should be a maximum for the ...

Modified direct methods of structure determination
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.4, p. 388 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
Modified direct methods of structure determination 4.1.4. Modified direct methods of structure determination The extensive modifications that have been applied to adapt standard direct methods of structure solution to the specifics of powder diffraction data are dealt with in Chapter 4.2 and are only briefly considered here. Important gains in performance ...

Conventional direct methods of structure determination
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.3, pp. 387-388 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
... et al., 2001 ) and inducing differential thermal expansion in crystals (Shankland et al., 1997 ; Brunelli et al., 2003 ). These approaches ... Appl. Cryst. 22, 389-393.GoogleScholar Cernik, R. J., Cheetham, A. K., Prout, C. K., Watkin, D. J., Wilkinson, A. P. & Willis, B. T. ...

Methods used in SDPD
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.2, pp. 386-387 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
... 4,8,12,16-tetraone C16H28N4O4 904.4 0.25 6 Laboratory (k) 4.1.13 Clarithromycin C38H69NO13 P21212 4367.5 1 51 Synchrotron (l) 4.1.13 ... et al. (2007 ). (j) Brenner et al. (2002 ). (k) Seebach et al. (1997 ). (l) Noguchi et al. (2012 ... al. (2006 ). (p) Markvardsen et al. (2002 ). (q) Shankland et al. (2010 ). (r) Grosse-Kunstleve et al. ( ...

Introduction
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.1, p. 386 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
Introduction 4.1.1. Introduction The two chapters that follow this one deal in detail with reciprocal- and real-space methods of crystal structure determination from powder diffraction data (SDPD). The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview and summary of the wide variety of methods that are available for ...

Combined figures of merit
Shankland, K.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 4.1.18, p. 392 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000956 ]
... direct-space methods. J. Appl. Cryst. 38, 688-693.GoogleScholar Burger, K., Cox, D., Papoular, R. & Prandl, W. (1998). The application ... Appl. Cryst. 31, 789-797.GoogleScholar Cernik, R. J., Cheetham, A. K., Prout, C. K., Watkin, D. J., Wilkinson, A. P. & Willis, B. T. ...

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