International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume B
Reciprocal space
Edited by U. Shmueli

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. B. ch. 4.5, p. 481   | 1 | 2 |

Section 4.5.3.1. Is polymer electron crystallography possible?

D. L. Dorsetb*

4.5.3.1. Is polymer electron crystallography possible?

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As a crystallographic tool, the electron microscope has also made an important impact in polymer science. Historically, single-crystal electron diffraction information has been very useful for the interpretation of cylindrically averaged fibre X-ray patterns (Atkins, 1989[link]), particularly when there is an extensive overlap of diffracted intensities. An electron diffraction pattern aids indexing of the fibre pattern and facilitates measurement of unit-cell constants, and the observation of undistorted plane-group symmetry similarly places important constraints on the identification of the space group (Geil, 1963[link]; Wunderlich, 1973[link]).

The concept of using electron diffraction intensities by themselves for the quantitative determination of crystal structures of polymers or other organics often has been met with scepticism (Lipson & Cochran, 1966[link]). Difficulties experienced in the quantitative interpretation of images and diffraction intensities from `hard' materials composed of heavy atoms (Hirsch et al., 1965[link]; Cowley, 1981[link]), for example, has adversely affected the outlook for polymer structure analysis, irrespective of whether these reservations are important or not for `soft' materials comprising light atoms. Despite the still commonly held opinion that no new crystal structures will be determined that are solely based on data collected in the electron microscope, it can be shown that this extremely pessimistic outlook is unwarranted. With proper control of crystallization (i.e. crystal thickness) and data collection, the electron microscope can be used quite productively for the direct determination of macromolecular structures at atomic resolution, not only to verify some of the previous findings of fibre X-ray diffraction analysis, but, more importantly, to determine new structures, even of crystalline forms that cannot be studied conveniently by X-rays as drawn fibres (Dorset, 1995b[link]). The potential advantages of electron crystallography are therefore clear. The great advantage in scattering cross section of matter for electrons over X-rays permits much smaller samples to be examined by electron diffraction as single-crystalline preparations (Vainshtein, 1964[link]). (Typical dimensions are given below.)

Electron crystallography can be defined as the quantitative use of electron micrographs and electron diffraction intensities for the determination of crystal structures. In the electron microscope, an electron beam illuminates a semitransparent object and the microscope objective lens produces an enlarged representation of the object as an image. If the specimen is thin enough and/or the electron energy is high enough, the weak-phase-object or `kinematical' approximation is valid (Cowley, 1981[link]), see Chapter 2.5[link] . That is to say, there is an approximate one-to-one mapping of density points between the object mass distribution and the image, within the resolution limits of the instrument (as set by the objective lens aberrations and electron wavelength). The spatial relationships between diffraction and image planes of an electron microscope objective lens are reciprocal and related by Fourier transform operations (Cowley, 1988[link]). While it is easy to transform from the image to the diffraction pattern, the reverse Fourier transform of the diffraction pattern to a high-resolution image requires solution of the famous crystallographic phase problem (as discussed for electron diffraction in Section 2.5.7[link] ).

Certainly, in electron diffraction studies, one must still be cognizant of the limitations imposed by the underlying scattering theory. An approximate `quasi-kinematical' data set is often sufficient for the analysis (Dorset, 1995a[link]). However (Dorset, 1995b[link]), there are other important perturbations to diffraction intensities which should be minimized. For example, the effects of radiation damage while recording a high-resolution image are minimized by so-called `low-dose' procedures (Tsuji, 1989[link]).

References

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