International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 2.8, pp. 174-188
https://doi.org/10.1107/97809553602060000943

Chapter 2.8. Powder diffraction in external electric and magnetic fields

Contents

  • 2.8. Powder diffraction in external electric and magnetic fields  (pp. 174-188) | html | pdf | chapter contents |
    • 2.8.1. Introduction  (p. 174) | html | pdf |
    • 2.8.2. Experimental conditions  (pp. 174-177) | html | pdf |
      • 2.8.2.1. Detectors  (pp. 175-176) | html | pdf |
      • 2.8.2.2. Absorption  (pp. 176-177) | html | pdf |
      • 2.8.2.3. Sample fluorescence and incoherent neutron scattering  (p. 177) | html | pdf |
    • 2.8.3. Examples  (pp. 177-186) | html | pdf |
      • 2.8.3.1. In situ studies of ferroelectrics in an external electric field  (pp. 177-181) | html | pdf |
      • 2.8.3.2. In situ studies of electrode materials and in operando investigations of Li-ion batteries  (pp. 181-183) | html | pdf |
      • 2.8.3.3. Diffraction under a magnetic field  (pp. 183-186) | html | pdf |
        • 2.8.3.3.1. General remarks  (pp. 183-184) | html | pdf |
        • 2.8.3.3.2. Frustrated magnetic systems  (pp. 184-185) | html | pdf |
          • 2.8.3.3.2.1. Kagomé staircase systems  (pp. 184-185) | html | pdf |
          • 2.8.3.3.2.2. Manganite systems  (p. 185) | html | pdf |
        • 2.8.3.3.3. Additional systems and scattering techniques  (pp. 185-186) | html | pdf |
        • 2.8.3.3.4. Concluding remarks  (p. 186) | html | pdf |
    • 2.8.4. Summary  (p. 186) | html | pdf |
    • References | html | pdf |
    • Figures
      • Fig. 2.8.1. Sample geometries for in situ experiments with an applied electric field  (p. 177) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.2. (a), (b) High-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction patterns and TEM imaging of PZT with a varying Zr/Ti ratio  (p. 178) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.3. Diffraction patterns of the tetragonal 101T /110T reflection pairs of PZT 52/48, PZT 53/47, PZT 54/46, PZT 55/45 and PZT 56/44 recorded in situ under an electric field for the first poling cycle of up to 4 kV mm−1  (p. 179) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.4. In situ transmission geometry developed by Schönau, Schmitt et al  (p. 179) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.5. 111C and 200C reflections of the unpoled, remanent and applied field state of PIC 151 at ω = 0°  (p. 179) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.6. 111C and 200C reflections of bipolar fatigued PIC 151 (50 Hz, 107 cycles) in the remanent state (0 kV mm−1 at ω = 0°, 15°, 30° and 45°)  (p. 180) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.7. 111C and 200C reflections of bipolar fatigued PIC 151 (50 Hz, 107 cycles) at ω = 45° with 0.0, 0.72, 1.41 and 2.0 kV mm−1  (p. 180) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.8. Diffracted intensities of the pseudo-cubic 002 reflections as a function of 2θ and time during application of a square, bipolar electric field waveform of frequency 1 Hz and amplitude of plus or minus half the coercive field  (p. 180) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.9. Pump–probe measurements of the 200C reflection at ω = 45°  (p. 180) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.10. The pseudo-cubic 002 reflection of (a) 0.93BNT–0.07BT end member, (b) 0.938BNT–0.053BT–0.009KNN, (c) 0.932BNT–0.045BT–0.023KNN and (d) 0.86BNT–0.14KNN end member as a function of electric field from the initial zero-field state (top) to an applied field of 5.5 kV mm−1 (bottom)  (p. 181) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.11. Rietveld refinement based on different patterns of 0.92Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.06BaTiO3–0.02K0.5NbO3 (a) in the unpoled and (b) in the applied field state at 6 kV mm−1  (p. 181) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.12. Li1+δNiO2 during charge and discharge  (p. 183) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.13. The High Magnetic Field Facility for Neutron Scattering at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin has two main components: the High Field Magnet (HFM) and the Extreme Environment Diffractometer (EXED)  (p. 183) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.14. Neutron powder diffraction data for Co3V2O8 at 9 K (left) and 2 K (right) under magnetic fields of 0, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0 and 8.0 T  (p. 184) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.15. The observed Bragg reflection 100 (open circles) under an applied field of (a) 0 T, (b) 2 T and (c) 4 T at 4.2 K and (d) 0 T, (e) 2 T and (f) 4 T at 16 K (taken from Yusuf et al  (p. 185) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.16. Time-of-flight diffraction patterns of YMn2O5 at 1.6 K under magnetic fields between 0 and 8 T (taken from Radaelli & Chapon, 2008 )  (p. 185) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.8.17. Polarized neutron diffraction patterns for Tb2Sn2O7 at 2 K and 1 T (a) and 100 K and 5 T (b)  (p. 186) | html | pdf |